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232 



Resume en Fran^ais 

Le moyen de savoir le sens du livre revele par Dieu Tout Puissant et les directives de 
sa religion sont les faits justes rapportes sur le prophete - que la paix soit sur lui - et ceux 
rapportes sur ses meilleurs compagnons qui ont vecu la revelation et connu 1' interpretation. 

La distinction entre la justesse et la faiblesse de ces faits se fait par le moyen des 
critiques emis par les grands savants a qui le Bon Dieu a fait don de cette vertu et a qui II a 
donne ce savoir a travers les ages. 

Les savants ont etabli des regies, et fonde des bases originelles, devenues par la suite 
une science elevee en soi, plutot une multitude de sciences; chacune se divisant en plusieurs 
branches- Ibn Salah en a compte soixante cinq et a suivi les pas d'Ibn Kathir dans son abrege 
et c'est la i'objet de cette etude. 

Cette etude est done un essai parmi tant d'autres visant a faire ressortir la verite de la 
terminologie des sciences du hadith ( parole du prophete ) dans ses deux sens : les sciences du 
hadith par la narration ou par la connaissance. 

Comme la verite ne peut apparaitre qu'a partir de la mise en revue de tous les savoirs 
des savants specialises dans la science de la terminologie du hadith et vu que Tobjet de cette 
recherche est aussi vaste que precis, la mise en revue sera trop [ongue et il faudrait se vouer 
completement a la lecture des a;uvres de ces savants en vue d'une recherche minutieuse afin 
d'eclaircir tous les points obscurs et non apparents et c'est pour cela que j'ai restreint I'etude 
au livre intitule « L'abrege des sciences du hadith de I'imam Ibn Kathir », ou j'ai mis en 
evidence ses points de vue concemant la science de la terminologie du hadith et cela a partir 
de son etude abregee de I'oeuvre d'lbn Salali en analysant et en comparant avec les autres 
points de vue de certains savants qui ont affronte cet art ; c'est pour cela que cette etude s'est 
tntitulee « El Hafidh Ibn Kathir et ses points de vue relatifs au hadith a travers son abrege ». 

Ibn Kathir a suivi le meme classement d'Ibn Salah dans les differentes sciences du 
hadith, comme il ne I'a pas approuve sur plusieurs questions et il a apporte des 
enrichissements ce qui a donne plus de valeur a I'ccuvre. Parmi ces enrichissements on cite : 

Premieremcnt : En ce qui concerne les sciences du hadith par la connaissance . 

Les principaux themes exposes sont au nombre de trois : 

Lc premier theme : concerne Ic hadilh juste ou il a mis le point sur plusieurs 
problemes a savoir : 



233 



1 . Le probleme du denombrement des types de la science du hadith et le classement de 
la terminologie dans des contextes thematiques, chaque contexte introduisant a son tour des 
types de sciences du hadith ayant les memes caracteristiques. 

2. Le probleme de la repartition du hadith en juste et faible a I'inverse de ceux qui ortt 
dit qu'il ya trois classes de hadiths : juste, bon et faible. 

3. Le probleme de la limite du juste et de ses categories en examinant I'appui du 
hadith comnte Font realise les imams dans leurs oeuvres de classification. 

4. Le probleme des enrichissements ou ajouts aux deux livres justes (sahiheyn) et 
I'avis d'Ibn Kathir quand a sa revision du fait que ces hadiths en surplus se trouvent chez El 
Boukhari et Muslim et qu'ils n'ont pas insere dans leurs livres justes. 

5. Le probleme des sources du hadith juste et la possibilits de la correction du hadith et 
la non cloture de Tissue de I'ijtihad ne se mettant pas d'accord avec Ibn Slab et approuvant El 
imam Ennawawi. 

Ceci en ce qui conceme les themes d'ordre general. II existe des themes plus detailles 
necessitant plus de temps et de recherche, 

Deuxieme theme : en ce qui conceme les hadiths bons, on s'interessera 
particulierement a ce qui suit : 

1. La definition du hadith bon chez les savants, et le probleme principal de la 
justification de son emploi et le differend des savants a son sujet ; ainsi que ['opposition d'Ibn 
Kathir a la definition du Khatabi, et et son refus qu'El Tirmidhi a apporte une definition 
particuliere du hadith boa dans son livre El Jamii, 

2. Les classes du hadith bon chez Ibn Salah et I'opposition d'Ibn Kathir au 
declassement de Tune des classes du hadith bon selon les dires d'El tirmidhi. 

3. Le probleme : est-cc qu'il est necessaire qu'il yait plusieurs narrateurs pour que le 
hadith soit bon , Pour cela Ibn Kathir a expose duex cas : 

Le premier cas ; la faiblesse qui ne disparait pas avec les suivis a savoir la narration 
des menteurs et laisses pour compte. 

Le deuxieme cas : la faiblesse qui disparit avec les suivis a savoir la narration de ceux 
ayant une mauvaise memoire ou la narration des marassil (envoycs). 

Les savants ne se sont pas mis d'accord ; il ya les approbateurs et les declineurs 
(accepte et refute). 

4. Les sous entendus du hadith bon : les principaux livres relates par Ibn Kathir est 
I'ceuvre d'El Tirmidhi « El Jamii » et I'oeuvre d'Abi Daoud « El sounane ». comme il a traite 
la question d'el jorh wa taadil (L etude de la fiabilite des hommes rapportant les paroles du 



234 



prophete) chez Abi Daoud au sujet de I'expression « ma sakata anhou » (ce dont il n'a ete rien 
dit)est-ce qu'il faut le considerer comme bon ou non. ? et est-ce que son silence est absolu ou 
c'est seulement dans ses traditions c'est tout ?, 

5. Le probleme de la justesse de I'appui n'entraine pas autoinatiquement la justesse du 
hadith et la reponse d'Ibn Kathir a cette question est que : le verdict de Tappui bon ou juste ne 
permet pas de juger le contenu car il se peut qu'il soit excentrique ou conditionnel et c'est 
I'un des problemes les plus importants et les plus precis selon I'utilisation des moyens de 
critique et des indicateurs de la matiere du hadith et la preuve de la justesse ou de la faiblesse 
de I'appui d'une part et du contenu d'autre part. Pour ce cas il a largement disute ce qu'il 
falleit limiter te Tinverse. 

6- Le probleme des expressions de terminologie chez El Tirmidhi ou il a aborde deux 
expressions. 

1"^ expression : Le dire d'El Tirmidhi « bon juste » qu'est-ce qu'il entend par la ?. 

2*^'™ expression : Le dire d'El Tirmidhi « bon etrange nous ne le connaissons que de 
cette fa^on » qu'est-ce qu'il a voulu dire par la ? est-ce I'appui , le contenu ou les deux 
ensembles ?. 

Troisieme theme : conceme le hadith faible. 

La il a aborde plusieurs questions contenant a leur tour des problemes les detaillant et 
que nous intituierons comme suit : 

1 . Selon r interruption de I'appui : il a aborde le hadith interrompu et 

envoye, insoluble et contenant Moudlas scion les definitions et les problemes 

qui se trouvent dans chaque type et on a abouti au resultat que ces hadiths sont interrompus qt 
qu'il n'ya de difference entre les types que dans la nomination imbriquee ; des fois ils 
qualifient d'envoye un hadith interrompu et des fois c'ezst I'inverse. 

2. selon la singularite : ou il a aborde Pexcentrique et le non reconnu et la relation 
entre eux, et aussi le singulier et je me suis particulierement interessee aux problemes de 
difference et de singularite que comporte chaque type. 

Selon les ajouts et les causes et selon I'insertion, Tinversement et !a perturbation. 

Dcuxicmement : Les sciences du hadith par la narration . 

Les principales questions abordccs par Ibn Kathir moyennant I'analyse et la discussion 
est la question de la sciences des nairateurs du hadith d'aprcs !a connaissance de celui qui en a 
accepte la narration et celui qui ne I'a pas accepte ainsi que le style de presentation et El jorh 
wa taadil et la question des noms ct appellations a travers la connaissance des noms propres 



235 



des narrateurs, Icur genealogie, leur biographic et leur durce de vie, ieur ciasse et leur statut de 
compagnons du prophete, adeptes et ainsi de suite. 

Cette etude n'est qu'un essai de comprehension precise, et une explication profonde 
du concept de la terminologie du hadith selon le fondement et I'iiistoire, le sens et I'originalite 
de la methodologie de la recherche dans ces sciences sur leyquelles est basee la science de la 
tradition consideree elle u'^me comme la base d'autres sciences. 

La realite du hadith necessite un fondement original de la terminologie en I'examinant 
par rapport aux pratiques des gens, et ce afin d'eclaircir la verite et faciliter la connaissance de 
la methodologie qui est la base de la connaissance des sciences du hadith par la connaissance 
et la narration et afm de refuter les doules des orientalistes souleves sur la tradition du 
prophete. 

Enfni, en plus de la benediction que j'attends de Dieu Tout Puissant sur ce travail, si je 
mc sui.s trorapee 9a nc vient que de moi, et si j'ai bien fait 9a n'est que I'ultimc don de Dieu 
dont le pouvoir est ahsolu. 



236 



Summary of the thesis 

The means of knowing the direction of the book revealed by Very 
Powerful God and the directives of its religion are the right facts reported on the 
prophet - peace be upon on him - and those reported on his best companions 
who lived the revelation and knew interpretation. 

The distinction between the accuracy and the weakness of these facts is done by the 
means of the criticisms emitted by the large scientists whom God made gift of this virtue and 
to which It gave this knowledge through the ages. 

The scientists laid down rules, and founded original bases, become thereafter a science 
raised in iteself, rather a multitude of sciences; each one being divided into several branches. 
Ibn Salah counted sixty five and followed the steps of Ibn Kathir in his summary and it is 
there the object of this study. 

This study is a search among so many others aiming at emphasizing the truth of the 
terminology of sciences of the hadith (word of the prophet) in its two directions: sciences of 
the hadith by the narration or by knowledge. 

As the truth can appear only starting from the setting in review of all the searchs of the 
scientists specialized in the science of the terminology of the hadith and considering the 
object of this research is as vast as precise, the setting in review will be too long and it would 
be necessary to be completely dedicated to the reading of works of these scientists for a 
meticulous research in order to clear up all the obscure points and non appearent and it is for 
that that I restricted the study to the book entitled "the summary of sciences of the hadith of 
the imam Ibn Kathir", where I highlighted his points of view concerning science of hadith 
that starts from its shortened study of the work of Ibn Salah, analyzing and comparing with 
the other points of view of certain scientists who faced this art; it is for that this study was 
entitled "El Hafidh Ibn Kathir and its points of view relating to the hadith through its 
summary". 

Ibn Kathir followed the same classification of Ibn Salah in various sciences of the 
hadith, like it did not approve it on several questions and it brought enrichments what gave 
more value to work. Among these enrichments one quotes: 

Firstly: With regard to sciences of the hadith by knowledge. 

The principal exposed topics are three: 



237 



The first topic: just relate to the hadith where it put the point on several problems : 

1 . The problem of the enumeration of the types of the science of the hadith and the 
classification of the terminology in contexts sets of themes, each context introducing in its 
turn the types of sciences of hadith having the same characteristics. 

2. The problem of the distribution of the hadith as Juste and weak contrary to those 
which said that it ya three classes of hadiths: Just, good and weak. 

3. The problem of the limit of the Just and its categories by examining the support of 
the hadith like carried it out the imams in their works of classification. 

4. The problem of enrichments or additions to the two right books (sahiheyn) and the 
opinion of Ibn Kathir's revision owing to the fact that these hadiths of surpluses in El 
Boukhari and Muslim and that they did not insert in their right books. 

5. The problem of the sources of the hadith just and the possibility of the correction of 
the hadith and noncloture of the exit of the ijtihad not putting an agreement with Ibn Slab and 
approving El imam Ennawawi. 

This with regard to the topics of a general nature. There are more detailed topics 
requiring more time and research. 

Second topic: with regard to the good hadiths, one will be interested particularly in 
what follows: 

1. The definition of the hadith good given by the scientists, and the principal problem 
of the justification of its employment and the disagreement of the scientists about it; as well as 
the opposition of Ibn Kathir to the definition of Khatabi, and its refusal that El Tirmidhi 
brought a particular definition of the hadith good in its book El Jamii. 

2. Classes of the hadith good in Ibn Salah's work and opposition of Ibn Kathir to the 
downgrading of the one of the classes of the hadith good according to statements' of El 
Tirmidhi. 

3. The problem: is it necessary that several narrators so that the hadith is good. For 
that Ibn Kathir exposed two case: 

The first case: the weakness which does not disappear with the follow-ups with 
knowing the narration of the liars and left for account. 

The second case: the weakness which disappear with the follow-ups with knowing the 
narration of those having a bad memory or the narration of the marassil (sent). 

The scientists did not agree: there is the assentor and decliners (accepted and refuted). 

4. Under heard hadith good: the principal books reported by Ibn Kathir is the work of 
El Tirmidhi "El Jamii" and the work of Abi Daoud "El sounane". as it treated the question of 
el jorh wa taadil (the study of the reliability of the men bringing back the words of the 



238 



prophet) at Abi Daoud about the expression "ma sakata anhou" (that of which it was not 
nothing said) that it is necessary to regard it as good or not? and its silence is absolute or it is 
only in its traditions it is all?. 

5. The problem of the accuracy of the support automatically does not involve the 
accuracy of the hadith and the answer of Ibn Kathir to this question is only: the verdict of the 
support good or right does not make it possible to judge the contents because it may be that it 
is eccentric or conditional and it is one of the most significant problems and most precise 
according to the use of the means of criticism and the indicators of the matter of the hadith 
and the proof of the accuracy or the weakness of the support on the one hand and the contents 
on the other hand. 

6. The problem of the expressions of terminology at El Tirmidhi where it approached 
two expressions. 

1^* expression: Statement of El Tirmidhi "good just" what it understands by there?. 

2 ^"'^ expression: Do the statement of El Tirmidhi "good strange we know it only this 
way" what did he meant by there? this is the support, the contents or the two sets?. 

Third topic: relate to the weak hadith. 

There it tackled several questions containing in their turn of the problems the retailer 
and whom we will entitle as follows: 

1 . According to the interruption of the support:it approached the stopped hadith 
and 

envoy, insoluble and container, moudlas according to the definitions and problems' 
which are in each type and one led to the result that these hadiths is stopped that difference 
between the types only in the overlapping nomination; times they describe as envoy a stopped 
hadith and times it is the reverse. 

2. according to the singularity: where it approached the eccentric and not recognized 
and the relation between them, and also the singular and I was particularly interested to the 
problems of difference and singularity which each type comprises. 

According to the additions and the causes and insertion, conversely and the 
disturbance. 

Secondly: Sciences of the hadith by the narration. 

The principal questions tackled by Ibn Kathir with the help of the analysis 
and the discussion is the question of sciences of the narrators of the hadith 
according to the knowledge of that which is accepted the narration and that 
which did not accept it as well as the style of presentation and El jorh wa taadil 



239 



and the question of the names and through the knowledge of the proper names of 
the narrators, their genealogy, their biography and their lifespan, their class and 
their statute of companions of the prophet, followers and so on. 

This study is only one test of precise comprehension, and a major explanation of the 
concept of the terminology of the hadith according to the base and the history, the direction 
and the originality of the methodology of research in these sciences on which is based the 
science of the tradition considered itself as the base of other sciences. 

The reality of the hadith requires an original base of the terminology by examining it 
compared to the practices of people, and this in order to clear up the truth and to facilitate the 
knowledge of the methodology which is the base of the knowledge of sciences of the hadith 
by knowledge and the narration and in order to refute the doubts of the orientalists raised on 
the tradition of the prophet. 

Lastly, in addition to the blessing that I await from Very Powerful God on this work, if 
I were mistaken that comes only from me, and if I did that well is only the ultimate gift of 
God whose capacity is absolute. 



240